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Kevin R. Ryan: Demolition access to the WTC Towers

14 July 2009 | Permalink | comments: 0

Categories: [ 9/11 Truth Movement ]

http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/HL0907/S00124.htm

Kevin R. Ryan | 9 July 2009

Demolition access to the World Trade Center towers: Part one - tenants

Note: The author is indebted to a few particularly useful sources of information and inspiration, including Russ Baker’s book “Family of Secrets”, the websites nndb.com, sourcewatch.org and secinfo.com, and Richard Gage.

On occasion, the public has been asked by George W. Bush to refrain from considering certain conspiracy theories. Bush has made such requests when people were looking into crimes in which he might be culpable. For example, when in 1994 Bush’s former company Harken Energy was linked to the fraudulent Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) through several investors, Bush’s spokeswoman, Karen Hughes, shut down the inquiry by telling the Associated Press -- “We have no response to silly conspiracy theories.” On another occasion, Bush said in a televised speech -- “Let us never tolerate outrageous conspiracy theories concerning the attacks of September the 11th.”

But paradoxically, we have also been asked to believe Bush’s own outrageous conspiracy theory about 9/11, one that has proven to be false in many ways. One important way to see the false nature of Bush’s conspiracy theory is to note the fact that the World Trade Center buildings could only have fallen as they did through the use of explosives. A number of independent scientific studies have pointed out this fact [1, 2, 3, 4], but it was Bush’s own scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), through their inability to provide a convincing defense of the official line, who ultimately proved that explosives were necessary.[2, 5, 6, 7]

This leads us to ask the obvious question -- Who could have placed explosives in the World Trade Center towers? To answer that question, we should first consider who had access to the buildings, specifically the areas of the buildings that would be relevant to a demolition operation. We should also consider the time periods of interest. Those who had access at the necessary times should be further considered in terms of their ability to obtain the necessary explosive technologies and expertise, their ability to be secretive, and the possibility that they could have benefited from the destruction of the WTC buildings or from the resulting War on Terror. But one thing is certain, unless it was done by one person acting alone, it must have been a conspiracy.

The Twin Towers and WTC 7, all highly secure buildings, were most readily accessed by tenants, security and building management staff, and construction-related contractors.

Evidence suggests that the period of interest should include the years between the 1993 WTC bombing and September 11th, 2001. This evidence includes the warning from 1993 bombing conspirator Nidal Ayyad, who reportedly wrote -- “next time it will be more precise.”[8] Additionally, evidence of a multi-year plot included the detailed information that FBI informant and mafia kingpin Gregory Scarpa Jr. received while in jail, as early as 1996, from Al-Qaeda operative Ramzi Yousef, while imprisoned in the adjacent cell. Yousef described plans to “bring New York to its knees” by blowing up the World Trade Center with American-owned “flying massive bombs.” Scarpa Jr. provided this information to Assistant US Attorney Patrick Fitzgerald and FBI Counsel Valerie Caproni, who were apparently not interested.[9] Another example is the recorded conversation between FBI informant Randy Glass and Pakistani ISI agent Raja Gulum Abbas, in which Abbas claimed “Those towers are coming down”, indicating that a plan was in progress as of July 1999.[10]

Throughout the life of the WTC buildings, modifications were made to each structure. The modifications included upgrades to electrical, fire protection, and elevator systems, as well as general construction activities. As a rule, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) was responsible for initiating the modifications in the public access areas, and the tenants were responsible for completing the modifications throughout the leased spaces.[11] For this reason, the tenant companies would have been capable of coordinating the installation of explosive materials and other devices with reasonable certainty that those materials would not be detected by others. For a demolition plan to work, however, such tenants would need to be managed as a group, and explosives would need to be placed on enough floors to ensure the fall of each building through what would otherwise have been the path of most resistance.

While examining the tenants in each critical area, we should ask – Cui Bono? That is, who benefited from the destruction of the WTC buildings, and the resulting War on Terror? The obvious answer includes, primarily, the Bush Administration and its friends. It also includes overlapping groups of oil and gas companies, defense contractors, and those who desired to wield undue influence on international policies related to a wide number of issues from civil rights to space domination.

The North Tower Impact Zone

On 9/11, American Airlines Flight 11 hit the north face of the north tower (WTC 1) between floors 94 and 99. In a stunning coincidence, these floors bracket those that had been upgraded for fireproofing shortly before 9/11.[12] This coincidence was amplified by the fact that one tenant occupied all of those floors – Marsh & McLennan (Marsh), which at the time was the world’s largest insurance brokerage company. One other tenant, Sumitomo Bank, shared part of floor 96 with Marsh.

During the years from 1993 to 2001, Marsh made several modifications to these floors, in addition to the fireproofing upgrades mentioned above. According to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Marsh made modifications to the south side of floor 94 in 1998. That same year, the PANYNJ helped Marsh demolish floors 95-98 in order to rebuild the fire alarm and sprinkler systems. Marsh did further modification work on floor 95 in the year 2000.[13] The full floor fireproofing upgrades on floors 93 through 100 were accomplished in August through November of 1998, except for floor 94, which was done in December 1996.

Marsh was a large company, with a number of subsidiaries, including Putnam Investments, Mercer, Johnson & Higgins, and Guy Carpenter, a company that occupied floors 47 to 54 of the south tower. Marsh was also known to be notoriously secretive, and had been likened to the CIA.[14] Its chief executive on 9/11 was Jeffrey Greenberg, a member of the Brookings Institution, the Trilateral Commission, and the son of the chairman of American International Group (AIG), Maurice Greenberg. AIG has been reported to be at the center of a number of CIA operations.[15]

Jeffrey Greenberg rose quickly through management at Marsh, having come there directly from AIG in 1995, and then becoming CEO just four years later. At Brookings, Greenberg hobnobbed with Lee Hamilton, co-chair of the 9/11 Commission, and the Iraqi Nemir Amin Kirdar, CEO of Investcorp, a BCCI-related company founded by the Saudi Abdullah Taha Bakhsh.[16]

BCCI was founded by a Pakistani named Agha Hasan Abedi, and was ”made up of multiplying layers of entities, related to one another through an impenetrable series of holding companies, affiliates, subsidiaries, banks-within-banks, insider dealings and nominee relationships.” In the early nineties, BCCI was extensively investigated for money laundering and terrorist financing, and was ultimately shut-down by the Bank of England in 1992.[17] Like BCCI, AIG developed the same fragmented and difficult to trace network of subsidiaries, spread across 130 countries and 400 regulators.[18]

Other very powerful and well-connected people worked in senior management at Marsh. These included Stephen Friedman, a senior principal at Marsh Capital and former partner at Goldman Sachs, who later became George W. Bush’s top economic advisor. Friedman was also a member of the Brookings Institution, the Bilderberg group, the Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, and the board at In-Q-Tel, the investment firm founded by the CIA in 1998. In-Q-Tel invests in state of the art technologies related to defense and intelligence work, including nano and chemical technologies, according to its website.[19]

In another interesting coincidence, Friedman belonged, through Cornell University, to a secret society called Quill and Dagger, the membership of which includes Paul Wolfowitz, Sandy Berger and Stephen Hadley. Wolfowitz, the neo-con deputy secretary of defense in the Bush Administration, was the author in 1992 of the “Wolfowitz Doctrine” of pre-emptive warfare. He also made comments about a “surprise like Pearl Harbor” months before 9/11, and met with Pakistani ISI General Mahmud Ahmed in the week before 9/11.[20] Berger, the National Security Advisor to President Clinton, was later caught stealing documents from the 9/11 Commission investigation.[21] Berger was also the boss of White House counterterrorism Tsar Richard Clarke, and together with Hadley - who was Condoleeza Rice’s deputy - was responsible for delaying or obstructing Clarke’s plans to stop Al Qaeda in January 2001.[22]

The President of Marsh Real Estate Advisors, from 1982 to 2001, was Craig Stapleton, the husband of George W. Bush’s cousin, Dorothy Walker Bush. Stapleton’s Marsh division was responsible for negotiating office leases in the US, Canada and Europe. He once co-owned the Texas Rangers with George W. Bush, a spectacular investment for all involved. In 1997, Stapleton was a member of the board of a company called Cendant that was charged in 1998 with massive accounting fraud. The President of Cendant at the time was Henry Silverman, a former partner of the Blackstone Group and later Vice Chairman of the PANYNJ. Stapleton went on to join Winston Partners, a privately owned investment firm founded in 1993 and led by George W. Bush’s bother Marvin.

The Vice Chairman of Marsh on 9/11 was Mathis Cabiallavetta, a Swiss citizen. Although Cabiallavetta was a member of the Marsh board from 1993 to 2000, he took his position as Vice Chairman in 1999, after having been President of the Union Bank of Switzerland (UBS) from 1996 to 1998. This was the same UBS that bailed out George W. Bush’s Harken Energy in 1987, with the help of billionaire Jackson Stephens. UBS was linked in other ways to the fraudulent terrorist financing bank BCCI.[16, 23]

Another connection to the Bush family can be seen in the Marsh acquisition of the New York insurance brokerage Johnson and Higgins in March 1997. Johnson and Higgins was the long-time employer of Prescott Bush Jr, brother to George H. W. Bush. Although Prescott Jr. no longer worked there, he had spent 33 years at Johnson & Higgins, retiring as Senior Vice President. After retirement, Bush continued to consult for the company, in Asian dealings. With Prescott Jr, Friedman and Stapleton, Marsh clearly had strong ties to the Bush network. Additionally, it seems possible that some members of Marsh management, particularly Stephen Friedman, through In-Q-Tel, had access to technologies that could have been used to bring about the deceptive demolition of the WTC buildings.

Add to this L. Paul Bremer, and the possible Marsh ties to demolition technology become clearer. One month after 9/11, Bremer would become the CEO for a new division called Marsh Crisis. Interestingly, the Yale graduate Bremer had been working to complete the National Report on Terrorism, and prior to that had been managing director for Kissinger Associates. According to a US Senate report, Kissinger Associates had a number of meetings with BCCI representatives in the late eighties and early nineties, and it refused to provide documents requested by the Senate investigators.[17] Bremer was also a member of the board for Akzo Nobel, the parent of International Paint, a company that produced a fireproofing application for skyscrapers called Interchar.[24]

Bremer was on the international advisory board for the Japanese mining and machinery company, Komatsu. At the time, Komatsu had been involved in a joint venture agreement with Dresser Industries, the oil-services/intelligence front in which Prescott Bush Sr. and George H. W. Bush got their start with Neil Mallon. The Komatsu-Dresser mining division operated from 1988 to 1997. In July 1996, it patented a thermite demolition device that could “demolish a concrete structure at a high efficiency, while preventing a secondary problem due to noise, flying dust and chips, and the like.”[25] Residues of thermite, the highly energetic chemical mixture, have been confirmed in samples of the WTC dust, and the use of thermite at the WTC was also revealed by environmental data.[1, 2, 3, 4, 26] Dresser Industries merged with Dick Cheney’s Halliburton in 1998.

It is less well known that Bremer’s relationship to Marsh started earlier. In fact, on 9/11, Bremer was the CEO of Marsh Political Risk Practice and he had an office in the south tower. That day, he was interviewed on NBC television, stating that Osama bin Laden was responsible and that possibly Iraq and Iran were involved too, and he called for the most severe military response possible. Google removed the interview video from its servers three times, and blocked it once.[27]

Bremer was called away from Marsh in 2003, to be the Iraq Occupation Governor. His work in that role has been widely criticized.[28]

The South Tower Impact Zone

United Airlines Flight 175 hit the south tower (WTC 2) between floors 78 and 83, in the southeast corner of the building. In the impact zone, Baseline Financial Services (Baseline) was located on floors 77 and 78, Fuji Bank was on floors 79 to 82, and AON Corporation was on floor 83.

Baseline was led by a very interesting individual named Joseph Kasputys, who had a history of being well connected to the highest levels of government, as well as to defense and intelligence industries. Kasputys worked, from 1972 to 1977, for the US departments of commerce and defense. He was also the deputy director of Nixon’s White House taskforce that dealt with the Arab oil embargo of 1973, and he was instrumental in the creation of the Department of Energy (DOE).

Kasputys’ connections to the DOE, from 1977 through at least 1997, are interesting considering that the DOE was developing thermite ignition devices as early as 1983.[29] Additonally, national laboratories working within the DOE developed nanothermites in the late 1990s. Nanothermites are explosive thermite mixtures where one or more reactants are present at the nanometer scale. These are also called super-thermites due to the extraordinarily large amount of energy released upon ignition.[3, 30]

Kasputys was also a member of the Logistics Management Institute (LMI), whose members included Paul Kaminski of In-Q-Tel and General Dynamics, Charles DiBona of Halliburton, Skull and Bones member Joseph Samuel Nye, and Michael Daniels of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). It has been noted that SAIC, a defense contractor with expertise in thermite-related technologies, played a large part in the NIST WTC investigation. LMI’s self-proclaimed role is “advancing the science of government.”[30, 31]

Better known for his leadership of Primark Corporation from 1987 to 2000, Kasputys was CEO for both companies after the Primark acquisition of Baseline in 1996. Primark owned as many as 50 companies during that time, and was acquired by Thomson Financial in June 2000. Kasputys then became CEO for Thomson, and he later founded the intelligence-services company IHS Global Insight, in March 2001. Another Primark company, Primark Decision Economics, was located in the 11th floor of the north tower.

The sheer number of companies involved with Primark, along with the vague business descriptions given (Baseline was described as “an international provider of information”), gave the impression that something more than legitimate business was involved. Primark owned Triad International Maintenance Company (TIMCO), a company that, among other things, modified Boeing 757s and 767s. Primark also owned The Analytic Sciences Corp (TASC), a security and intelligence (spying) company that had contracts with the DOE. As CEO of World Markets Research Centre, Kasputys predicted in 2003 that the US was the country with the fourth-highest risk of terrorism, and that – “Another September 11-style attack in the US is highly likely." [32]

According to NIST, Kasputys’ Baseline modified the southeast corner of floor 78 in 1999, exactly where the aircraft hit on 9/11.[33] Floors 77 and 78 were upgraded for fireproofing in June and April of 1998, respectively.

Another company with an office on floor 78 was First Commercial Bank. This was a Taiwanese national bank that had, in January 1998, privatized all but one third of its shares. The other two thirds went to First Commercial Financial Corp (FCFC) of Seguin, Texas. Unfortunately, it is not clear if FCFC is related to First Commercial Financial Group (FCFG), owned by Abdullah Taha Bakhsh. FCFG was a commodities brokerage firm that was forced to distribute its customer accounts in 1994, after regulators raised concerns about capital shortfalls and customer complaints.[34].

Interestingly, another company located in Seguin, Texas is the machinery manufacturing company, the Alamo Group. Dave Grzelak, CEO of Komatsu-Dresser, was a director at Alamo. He was also a board member at Aoki Construction Co, a mining company associated with Prescott Bush Jr, as we’ll see below.

The tenant located just above Baseline, on floors 79 to 82, was Fuji Bank. Fuji modified the core of floor 78 in 1998, the east wall of floor 80 in 1999, unknown parts of floor 80 in 2001, and the southeast corner of floor 82 in 1997.[33]

Prior to the year 2000, Fuji Bank was the second largest bank in Japan. Fuji’s largest investors were Union Carbide, Mobil Oil and Raytheon. In 1996, Yasuda Trust became a Fuji subsidiary and in September 2000, Fuji merged with Dai-ichi Kangyo Bank (DKB), and the International Bank of Japan (IBJ), to form the largest bank in the world under the name of Mihuzo Holdings. The second largest at the time was the Sumitomo-Mitsui Banking Corp, formed in October 1999. But the Fuji Bank merger meant that, as of 9/11, Mihuzo Holdings controlled companies not only in the impact zone of the south tower, but also on floors 48 to 50 of the north tower by way of DKB.

Toru Hashimoto, chairman of Fuji Bank, was also with Deutsche Securities Limited Tokyo Branch and is now on the board of Deutsche Bank with Norman Augustine. Augustine, also known for being the CEO of Lockheed Martin, was founder of In-Q-Tel and a board member of Riggs National, the banking firm of Jonathan Bush, the other brother of George H. W. Bush. A 2004 expose by the New York Times revealed Saudi Arabian accounts at Riggs were being investigated for money-laundering and possible financing of the September 11th terrorists.[35]

Deutsche Bank was the bank of the German Gestapo during World War II, funding the construction of concentration camps. It was broken up after the war, only to merge together again in 1957.[36] In 1998, Deutsche Bank added Banker’s Trust, which had purchased Alex Brown and Sons in 1997, to its group of companies. It was Deutsche Bank and these subsidiaries that were identified as being involved in insider trading related to the 9/11 attacks. The person of most interest in these dealings was A.B. Krongard, the CEO of Alex Brown, and CIA counsel to George Tenet.[37] From 2001 to 2004, Krongard was executive director of the CIA. Another significant player was Wolfgang Demisch, managing director at Alex Brown from 1993 to 1998, managing director at UBS Securities from 1988 to 1993, and member of the board at SAIC.

Fuji Bank had a history, in the early 1990s, of scandal related to fraudulent loans and gangster connections. It had also been linked to large CIA-related payments deposited in the Cayman Islands, and to the BCCI connected First American Bank.[38, 39, 40]

Moreover, Fuji Bank was not the only Mihuzo company that was accused of criminal activity. In June 1997, executives of DKB were accused of conspiring to provide $80 million in loans to Ryuichi Koike, a Japanese gangster. Koike used the money to purchase shares in securities brokerages, like Nomura, Nikko (located on floor 79 of the north tower), and Daiwa. Some reports put DKB’s extorted loans to Koike at $272 million.[41] DKB was reported to have made loans to other Yakuza crime syndicates as well, and in June 1997, the chairman of DKB ultimately resigned over the scandal.[42]

Additionally, Mihuzo subsidiary IBJ was discovered to have generated $2.5 billion in fraudulent loans to a businesswoman named Nui Onoue in 1991. IBJ was also reported to have indirectly supported predatory lending by securitizing high-loan-to-value loans to companies like Dallas’ FirstPlus Financial, a company that shot to financial stardom in 1996 and then collapsed in 1999. Dan Quayle was on the board of directors.[43]

Back in the summer of 1989, while his brother was President, Prescott Bush Jr. was the middleman in the takeover of two companies by West Tsusho, a Tokyo-based investment firm linked to one of Japan's biggest mob syndicates. West Tsusho was part of the empire of Susumu Ishii, head of the Inagawa-kai yakuza gang. In 1992, two days after an article linking him to Bush appeared in the Daily Yomiuri, Ishii was dead, reportedly from a “long illness.”[44]

At the time, The Boston Globe reported that Prescott Bush Jr. had also been a business partner with Tokyo-based Aoki Construction Corp (Aoki), in its deals to build in China. Masahiro Sakane, now the CEO of Aoki, was managing director at Komatsu from 1994 to 1999. Komatsu and Aoki shared many other links in management.

The two companies West Tsusho acquired through Prescott Bush Jr., were Quantum Access (of which Bush was a board member) and Asset Management International. As a consultant for Asset Management, Prescott introduced Hughes Aircraft to Japanese investors in a deal in which Hughes and the government of China would launch satellites that would beam television programming to broadcasters in China. [45, 46] In December 1989, President Bush lifted the sanctions that blocked the satellite deal, citing "the national interest." The Bush administration had earlier granted Hughes Aircraft "preliminary licenses" to exchange data with Chinese officials.[47] Also involved in the West Tsusho mob dealings was Nikko Securities (floor 79 of the north tower).

After his death, West Tsusho’s Susumu Ishii was replaced as the leader of the Inagawa-kai gang by Toi Inagawa. In September 1996, Inagawa formed an alliance with Yoshinori Watanabe, head of the largest yakuza gang, Yamaguchi-gumi. Nui Onoue, who received the fraudulent loans from Mihuzo’s IBJ, was said to be associated with Yamaguchi-gumi’s Takumi gang, and also an investor in Inagawa-kai.[41]

Japanese Banks had experienced a relatively tough time in the 1990s, referred to in financial circles as “the lost decade”, and in general were still doing badly in the years 2000 and 2001. In November 2000, Mizuho Holdings had problem loans and bad debts of more than 4 trillion yen ($36 billion). By mid-2001, the company was trading at half the value it had been at just a year before, when the merger was announced. [48, 49] Japan’s financial system began to recover in 2002.[50]

Moving to floor 83 of the south tower, there was AON Corporation, a Chicago-based competitor of Marsh. Today, General Richard Myers, one of the people most responsible for not protecting us on 9/11, is a director at AON. But on 9/11, the most interesting character working for AON was Jim Pierce, the cousin of George W. Bush. Jim’s father Scott Pierce, formerly a partner at G.H. Walker & Co, pled guilty to 2,000 counts of mail fraud in 1985, as President of E.F. Hutton.

Jim Pierce was managing director of AON on 9/11, and he had arranged a meeting on the 105th floor of the south tower for that morning. Pierce survived that day, despite the fact that twelve people came to the meeting in the south tower, and eleven of them died. The location of the meeting had been changed, the night before, to the Millenium Hotel, where Pierce watched the south tower as it was hit by the aircraft. Apparently the meeting attendees were not all notified of the change in location.[51]

AON modifed “unknown” parts of floor 83 in 1997. Some photos of the impact zone suggest that the most explosive part of the fireball erupting from the south tower came from the east side of the building, near floor 83 (see NIST report NCSTAR 1-5A, figure 7-7).

Chuo Trust, which shared floor 83 with AON, was the trust portion of Mihuzo’s DKB. According to NIST, Chuo modified the southeast corner of floor 83 in 1999.

An unusual feature of the destruction of the south tower was the “cold spot” on the north face of the building. This section along a twelve-column area of floors 80, 81, 82 did not experience any fire, despite the fact that the areas on both sides did have fire. In its report NCSTAR 1-5, NIST “concluded that insufficient information is available to allow a likely formation mechanism for the cold spot to be postulated.”

The Washington Group

Another company of interest, on floor 91 just above the impact zone for the south tower, was Washington Group International (Washington). This company was known primarily as a construction and mining firm, and it had just acquired Raytheon Engineers in July 2000. Raytheon was reported to have also occupied floor 91.

Washington had an interesting history. It had been a contractor for the DOE and its predecessor agencies since 1942, when it was involved in the Manhattan Project. In 1995, a management shake-up at Washington resulted in the temporary installment of William Clark as acting chairman. Clark was a member of the Center for Security Policy, along with many neo-cons including Richard Perle, Eliot Abrams, Norman Augustine (In-Q-Tel), Douglas Feith, and 9/11 Commissioner John Lehman. After re-organizing the management at Washington, in just a few months, Clark resigned.

In 1996, Washington took over Morrison-Knudsen, an engineering and construction company that had a history of working on large projects around the world, including in China, Iran, Afghanistan and Saudi Arabia. In Vietnam, Washington led the RMK-BRJ construction project with Brown & Root. During the 1980s, it worked closely on hazardous clean-up projects for the DOE. The Army Corps of Engineers hired Morrison-Knudsen to demolish over 200 buildings in 1995.[52]

In 1999, Washington acquired Westinghouse Government Environmental Services Company (WGESC), a firm that provided management services to the DOE and DOD. In July 2001, E. Preston Rahe, Jr, the President of WGESC, was promoted to Executive Vice President of Business Development for Washington Group's Government operating unit. Rahe went on to form a new company called Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, along with General John A. Gordon.

Gordon was George H. W. Bush’s Senior Director for Defense Policy on the National Security Council, and he worked with George Tenet at the CIA from September 1996 to October 1997, as associate director of central intelligence for military support, and as deputy director of the CIA from October 1997 to 2000. During this time, Gordon would have worked closely with A.B. Krongard, who was Tenet’s counsel from 1998 to 2001. Later, in 2003 and 2004, Gordon was George W. Bush’s Homeland Security advisor.

Apart from Lawrence Livermore labs (LLNL), one of the DOE facilities for which Washington was responsible, well before 9/11, was the Savannah River site near Aiken, SC. In February 1997, LLNL and the Savannah River site signed an agreement of cooperation to share technology. Savannah went on to add “Developing sol gel technology for fuels and other applications” to its portfolio.[53, 54] Sol-gel technology is utilized by LLNL for making nanothermites.[55] In another coincidence, Savannah River Technology staff participated in the search and rescue operations at Ground Zero by providing unique tools.[56]

Today, Washington is owned by URS Corp, and they still “help manage and operate Idaho NL, LANL and LLNL,” through a partnership with Battelle.[57] But just before 9/11 they were going through a tough time financially, and sought chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) documents show that Washington made court-ordered pre-petition payments, as part of these proceedings, to a number of companies including Komatsu. Washington also made payments to Greenhorne & O’Mara, whose employee Theresa McAllister was a lead author for the FEMA and NIST reports on the WTC disaster, and to Sumitomo Bank.[58] Sumitomo Bank was closely allied with Komatsu, and was involved with defense-related production.[59]

Other floors and companies of interest

If a “top down” demolition were implemented in the WTC’s Twin Towers on 9/11, then it would have been necessary to plant explosives on floors below the impact zone. From a novice perspective, it would seem ideal to have planted such explosives at regular intervals below the impact area, around floor 50, for example, and below that around floors 25 to 35, and lower. Videos show “squibs” emanating in these general areas of each tower, at levels spaced between the mechanical floors on 41-42, and 75-76.

We have seen that Marsh occupied the impact zone for the north tower, and floors 47 to 54 of the south tower. Additionally, in a reflective criss-cross pattern, Fuji Bank’s parent company Mihuzo Holdings occupied the impact zone for the south tower, as well as floors 48 to 50 of the north tower (DKB). Primark Corporation occupied part of the impact zone for the south tower, and also floor 11 of the north tower.

To evaluate floors 25 to 35 of each tower we should note that, in 1997 and 1998, big leases were signed at the WTC involving AON, Marsh, and Bankers Trust, and two other companies of interest, Exco Resources and Oppenheimer & Co. At the time, tenancy had gone way up and the complex was expected to be at full capacity due to growth of the financial sector.[60]

Exco Resources (Exco), of Dallas Texas, was an oil and gas holding company that was the parent to Garban Intercapital, located on floor 25 and 26 of the north tower, and also on floor 55 of the south tower, just above Marsh subsidiary Guy Carpenter. Exco experienced rapid growth as of 1998, in part due to some very well connected management representatives. Member of the board Mark Neporent also represented Cerebrus Capital, along with Dan Quayle. Robert L. Stillwell, senior partner at Bush friend James Baker’s firm Baker Botts, is currently a director at Exco.

Directors and Officers at Exco, during the period of interest, were associated with Enron affiliates, Anadarko Petroleum, a company owned and operated by long-time Bush family partner Robert Allison, and many other oil and gas exploration firms. Both Enron and Robert Allison met with Dick Cheney in regard to his secretive energy task force in early 2001.[61] In general, oil and gas exploration companies use explosives to underground create shock waves, so that oil reserves can be found through the seismic responses. Usually there is only a 10% success rate for finding new productive oil fields.[62]

Another Exco executive was Jeffrey Benjamin, who served on the board of Exco starting in 1998, and from 1996 to 1998 was managing director of UBS, the BCCI connected bank mentioned above with Mathis Cabiallavetta and Wolfgang Demisch. Just prior to working for UBS, Benjamin was managing director of Bankers Trust. Through Bankers Trust, he worked with A.B. Krongard, and as of 2002, Benjamin is a senior advisor to Apollo Management with Krongard’s wife, Cheryl Gordon Krongard.

Oppenheimer & Co, an investment bank, was on floors 31 to 34 of the south tower. Oppenheimer’s leadership once included Stephen Berger, former executive director of the PANYNJ (1985 to 1990). Berger was also on the board of Dresser Industries, the Bush dynasty firm, as well as being on the board of Forstmann Little & Co. with managing director of the Carlyle Group, Daniel Akerson, and with Alex Mandl of In-Q-Tel.

Oppenheimer was sold, by Stephen Robert and Nathan Gantcher, to the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC) in 1997. Mr. Gantcher continued to serve as Vice Chairman of CIBC Oppenheimer from 1997 to 1999 and also served on the board of Jacobsen Partners with Gerald Parsky, the former undersecretary of the Treasury who introduced Saudi investors to America. Parsky developed a close relationship with the Bushes, and by 1976 was “the undisputed go-to man for the Saudis on oil and money.” He also raised a lot of money for George W’s campaign.[63] Parsky, Gantcher and Stephen Robert were all members of the Council on Foreign Relations as of 1997, along with Friedman, Bremer, Augustine, Gordon, and Maurice Greenberg (and about 3,000 others).

CIBC Oppenheimer was invested in a number of powerful and politically wired companies, including Hollinger International, whose board included Henry Kissinger, Richard Perle, and 9/11 Commissioner James R. Thompson. CIBC Oppenheimer was also invested in Robert Allison’s Anadarko Petroleum, and several DKB subsidiaries including CIT Group, on whose board sits 9/11 Commissioner Thomas Kean. On a side note, Kean is also a Trustee of Drew University with Garnett Keith of Komatsu.

In 2003, the SEC fined CIBC Oppenheimer $80 million for helping to manipulate the financial statements of Enron.

Conclusions and next steps

If we look at the companies that occupied the impact zones of the WTC towers, and other floors that might have played a useful role in the demolition of the towers, we see connections to organizations that had access to explosive materials, and to the expertise required to use explosives. Mining companies like Washington, Morrison-Knudsen, Komatsu and Aoki Construction (and John Lehman’s Special Devices Inc.) have access to many types of explosive materials. Oil and gas companies, like those associated with Exco, use explosives for exploration. Some of the explosive technologies available to these companies, for example Komatsu and Washington, involve thermite, a chemical mixture that has been identified in the WTC dust and in the environmental data at Ground Zero.

It seems that, if certain management representatives of the tenant companies listed above wanted to help bring the WTC towers down, they would have been well suited to do so. The companies mentioned were located at well-spaced intervals in the buildings, and some, for example Marsh and the Primark subsidiaries, had a reputation of being secretive. In fact, a number of the executives from these firms were either on the board of intelligence firms (e.g. In-Q-Tel, TASC), or were closely related to others who were. Others were connected to the CIA itself, and to some of the largest defense contractors in the world, like Lockheed Martin, Raytheon, General Dynamics, Halliburton, and SAIC.

There are also strong connections to those who benefited from the 9/11 attacks, most notably the Bush family and their corporate network, including Dresser Industries (now Halliburton) and UBS, and to Deutsche Bank and it subsidiaries, reported to have brokered the insider trading deals. There are links between these tenant companies and the terrorist-related fraudulent bank BCCI.

In Part II of this series of essays, we’ll look at the security companies and other contractors that had access to the WTC buildings. We’ll then see more connections to the Bush family, through the companies that restructured the security systems in the late 1990s, like Securacom, where Marvin Bush and Wirt Walker were directors. Also involved in these security upgrades was Ensec, where future Democrat National Committee chairman Terry McAuliffe was added as a director in 1996 and later worked for Harken Energy’s Alan Quasha. The second essay will also look at E.J. Electric, owned by J. Robert Mann of the Yale Glee Club, and examine particulars about the PANYNJ management staff, and the Giuliani and Silverstein teams that were involved.

Part III will review the clean up of Ground Zero, and some of the people involved in the cover-up investigations. For example, we’ll look more closely at Donald Evans, a close friend to George W. Bush since 1968 and his largest fund-raiser, and who also happened to be secretary of the Department of Commerce during the NIST WTC investigation. This is interesting because NIST reports to the Secretary of Commerce.

In the end, we might see that conspiracies are not just limited to the powerless people who happen to live on the most strategically important lands in the world. The conspiracies that matter might involve the powerful people who seek access to those lands, and who have spent their lives seeking more power.

 

*************


Endnotes and references:

[1] Steven. E. Jones, Why Indeed Did the WTC Buildings Completely Collapse?, Journal of 9/11 Studies, September 2006 http://www.journalof911studies.com/volume/200609/ WhyIndeedDidtheWorldTradeCenterBuildingsCompletelyCollapse.pdf

[2] Steven E. Jones, et al, Fourteen Points of Agreement with Official Government Reports on the World Trade Center Destruction, The Open Civil Engineering Journal Volume 2, doi: 10.2174/1874149500802010035 http://www.bentham.org/open/tociej/openaccess2.htm

[3] Niels H. Harrit, et al, Active Thermitic Material Discovered in Dust from the 9/11 World Trade Center Catastrophe, The Open Chemical Physics Journal, Vol 2, 2009, doi: 10.2174/1874412500902010007, http://www.bentham-open.org/pages/content.php?TOCPJ/2009/00000002/00000001/7TOCPJ.SGM

[4] Kevin R. Ryan, et al, Environmental anomalies at the World Trade Center: evidence for energetic materials, The Environmentalist, Volume 29, Number 1 / March, 2009, http://www.springerlink.com/content/f67q6272583h86n4/

[5] James Gourley, Appeal Filed with NIST, Pursuant to Earlier Request for Correction, Journal of 9/11 Studies, December 2007 http://www.journalof911studies.com/volume/2007/AppealLetterToNISTGourleyEtAl.pdf

[6] Eric Douglas, The NIST WTC Investigation--How Real Was The Simulation?: A review of NIST NCSTAR 1, J 9/11 Studies, December 2006 http://www.journalof911studies.com/volume/200612/NIST-WTC-Investigation.pdf

[7] Kevin Ryan, What is 9/11 Truth? - The First Steps, J 9/11 Studies, August 2006 http://www.journalof911studies.com/articles/Article_1_Ryan5.pdf

[8] Larry Neumeister, Trade Center bomber's threat foreshadowed September terrorist attacks, September 30, 2001, Associated Press http://multimedia.belointeractive.com/attack/perspective/0930learning.html

[9] Sandra Harmon, Mafia Son, St. Martin’s Press, NY

[10] History Commons, page for Rajaa Gulum Abbas, http://www.historycommons.org/entity.jsp?entity=rajaa_gulum_abbas

[11] NIST WTC Report, NCSTAR 1-1H, Chapters 11 and 12, http://wtc.nist.gov/NCSTAR1/PDF/NCSTAR%201-1H.pdf

[12] Kevin Ryan, Another Amazing Coincidence Related to the WTC, 911blogger.com http://www.911blogger.com/node/13272

[13] NIST NCSTAR 1-1H (see above), table 13-1, and table 13-2.

[14] Marcia Vickers, The Secret World Of Marsh Mac, BusinessWeek, November 1, 2004 http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/04_44/b3906001_mz001.htm

[15] Wayne Madsen, AIG is a “special case”, Online Journal. September 23, 2008 http://onlinejournal.com/artman/publish/article_3777.shtml

[16] Ellen Ray, William H. Schaap, Covertaction, Institute for Media Analysis, p 193

[17] John Kerry and Hank Brown, The BCCI Affair: A Report to the Committee on Foreign Relations United States Senate, December 1992, Senate Print 102-140, http://www.fas.org/irp/congress/1992_rpt/bcci/

[18] Eric J.Fry, From BCCI to AIG..., March 13, 2009, Bullion Vault Gold News, http://goldnews.bullionvault.com/aig_bcci_031320093

[19] Website for In-Q-Tel, http://www.iqt.org/technology-portfolio/index-by-practice-area.html

[20] The History Commons, “Wolfowitz Doctrine”, http://www.historycommons.org/context.jsp?item=us_international_relations_41 Aaron Dykes, Wolfowitz Warns of 'Surprise like Pearl Harbor' Months Before 9/11 Attacks, Jones Report, February 9, 2007 http://www.jonesreport.com/articles/070207_wolfowitz.html Wolfowitz’s meeting with Mahmud Ahmed was documented in a FOIA response obtained by the 9/11 Working Group of Bloomington - http://911workinggroup.org/

[21] Philip Shenon, The Commission: The Uncensored History of the 9/11 Investigation, pp 249-253

[22] Craig Unger, House of Bush, House of Saud, pp 220, 228

[23] Craig Unger references the UBS links to BCCI in House of Bush, House of Saud, and Russ Baker describes the UBS bailout of Harken in Family of Secrets

[24] Akzo’s International Paint is the maker of Interchar http://www.international-pc.com/pc/pds/963to_uk.pdf http://www.sti.nasa.gov/tto/Spinoff2006/ps_3.html

[25] Taku Murakami, US Patent 5532449 - Using plasma ARC and thermite to demolish concrete, http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/5532449/description.html

[26] Steven E. Jones et al, Extremely High Temperatures During the World Trade Center Destruction, Journal of 9/11 Studies, January 2008 http://www.journalof911studies.com/articles/WTCHighTemp2.pdf

[27] Lewis Paul Bremer III on Washington DC NBC4 TV 09/11/01, Vehmgericht http://vehme.blogspot.com/2007/08/lewis-paul-bremer-iii-on-washington-dc.html

[28] A.K. Gupta, The Great Iraq Heist, January 15, 2004, Information Clearing House http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article5692.htm

[29] Albert Gibson et al, Integral low-energy thermite igniter, US Patent number: 4464989, http://www.google.com/patents/about?id=rKl1AAAAEBAJ&dq=US+4464989

[30] Kevin R. Ryan, The Top Ten Connections Between NIST and Nanothermites, Journal of 9/11 Studies, July 2008, http://www.journalof911studies.com/volume/2008/Ryan_NIST_and_Nano-1.pdf

[31] Skull and Bones is a secret society at Yale University, founded in 1832. Members have included George H.W. Bush, his father Prescott Bush, his son George W. Bush, his brother Jonathan J. Bush, and many other powerful people. For LMI’s mission, see its website - http://www.lmi.org/aboutus/aboutus.aspx

[32] World Markets Research Centre, Global Terrorism Index: key findings, The Guardian (UK), August 18, 2003 http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/aug/18/alqaida.terrorism1

[33] NIST NCSTAR 1-1H, table 13-2

[34] See Micha Morrison, Wall Street Journal, March 1, 1995. and, Gina Bellafante et al, All That Glitters…, Time Magazine, November 6, 1995

[35] Timothy O’Brien, A Washington Bank, a Global Mess, NY Times, April 11, 2004, http://www.nytimes.com/2004/04/11/business/yourmoney/11riggs.html?ex=1085025600&en=1cd00a0f06fad384&ei=5070&ex=1084852800&en=d2142d33570c4f4a&ei=5070

[36] Wikipedia page for Deutsche Bank - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deutsche_Bank

[37] Michael C. Ruppert, Suppressed Details of Criminal Insider Trading Lead Directly into the CIA’s Highest Ranks, October 9, 2001, http://www.fromthewilderness.com/free/ww3/10_09_01_krongard.html

[38] For the fraudulent loan scandal, see article from The Economist, entitled Japan’s financial scandals: now a big bank, July 27, 1991. For the Cayman islands deposits, see Terry Reed and John Cummins, Compromised: Clinton, Bush and the CIA, p248

[39] William Bowles, ‘Frauds-R-Us’ The Bush Family Saga, Information Clearing House, May 11, 2003 http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article3333.htm

[40] Sam Smith, Arkansas Connections, The Progressive Review, January 2001 http://www.prorev.com/connex.htm

[41] David E. Kaplan and Alec Dubro, Yakuza: Japan’s Criminal Underworld, University of California Press, 2003, see p 216 for the Koike loans and pp 198-199 for Niu Onoue

[42] Chairman Resigns at Dai-Ichi Kangyo Bank, New York Times Business section, June 14, 1997

[43] For the IBJ loans, see Mihuzo press release - http://www.mizuho-fg.co.jp/english/company/info/pdf/19991222release_eng.pdf and James Sterngold, Japan Hit by Another Scandal, New York Times, August 14, 1991 For FirstPlus Financial, see the Center for Public integrity, The Buying of the President - http://www.buyingofthepresident.org/index.php/archives/2000/545/ For more on Japanese banks and the Yakuza in the early 90s, see – http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/japans-crime-incorporated-the-years-of-the-bubble-economy-lured-japans-yakuza-gangs-to-muscle-into-big-business-terry-mccarthy-in-tokyo-explores-their-corporate-web-1479105.html

[44] Thomas Flannigan, Bribing the Bushes - http://www.jpri.org/publications/critiques/critique_VIII_2.html

[45] Jeff Gerth, The 1992 Campaign; Business Dealings of the President’s Relatives: What the Record Shows, New York Times, April 19,1992, http://www.nytimes.com/1992/04/19/us/1992-campaign-business-dealings-president-s-relatives-what-record-shows.html?scp=9&sq=%22asset%20management%20international%22&st=cse

[46] Russel S. Bowen, The Immaculate Deception, American West Publishers 1991 http://www.mail-archive.com/ctrl@listserv.aol.com/msg33133.html

[47] archive.com/ctrl@listserv.aol.com/msg33133.html Masanobu Iwatani, Regulatory Reform Provokes a Wave of New Entrants to Japan’s Security Markets, Capital Research Journal, Vol 2, No 4, http://www.nicmr.com/nicmr/english/report/repo/1999/1999win04.pdf

[48] Stephanie Strom, International Business; Japan's Banks Pressed by Troubled Corporate Clients, New York Times, November 25, 2000, http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/25/business/international-business-japan-s-banks-pressed-by-troubled-corporate-clients.html

[49] Miki Tanikawa, Stocks Relapse As Japan Waits For Changes, New York Times, July 27, 2001, http://www.nytimes.com/2001/07/27/business/stocks-relapse-as-japan-waits-for-changes.html?scp=6&sq=Mizuho&st=nyt

[50] Hiroko Tabuchi, In Japan’s Stagnant Decade, Cautionary Tales for America, New York Times, February 12, 2009

[51] See History Commons profile for Jim Pierce, and accompanying referencs, http://www.historycommons.org/entity.jsp?entity=jim_pierce

[52] Mark MacIntyre, Bunker Hill: light at the end of the tunnel, The Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce, August 20, 1998, http://www.djc.com/special/enviro98/10043970.htm

[53] The agreement between LLNL and Savannah River can be found here - https://www.llnl.gov/str/News597.html

[54] Savannah’s reference to developing sol-gels can be found here - http://srnl.doe.gov/mat_sci.htm

[55] Randy Simpson webpage at LLNL - https://www.llnl.gov/str/RSimpson.html

[56] News from the Savannah River National Laboratory, September 20, 2001, http://srnl.doe.gov/newsroom/2001news/nyc_911.pdf

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First off i applaud you for seeking facts rather that resorting to slander as i have all too commonly seen among alternate media. On that note i would like to make known some experiments the Australian government was carrying out! My grandfather was an aircraft maintenance technician many years ago. He obsessively tells me of an experiment they carried out where dry ice was shoveled into a modified chute into the clouds. He claimed they were at the aircraft altitude ceiling and the dry ice would cause the clouds to drop their water. He claimed they were wearing oxygen masks to breathe!

By Stephen on 2014 10 29 - 14:39:09
From the entry 'Chemtrails brownshirts renew threats against TNRA'.

Andrew Adams,

‘looking up’ does not tell you much about atmospheric physics. You can’t see that the air gets cooler with increasing altitude and decreasing density. You can’t see the wildly varying relative humidity, the pockets of ice supersaturation or the jet streams.
It takes knowledge and measurements to understand and make predictions. That’s what meteorologists and atmospheric scientists are there for, after all.

Regarding the notorious “Case Orange” text - supposedly compiled by an anonymous group of people - it is not even coming close to a peer-reviewed scientific paper. It piles up a lot of conjecture together with well-meaning statements that everybody can subscribe to. It also constantly mixes up contrails, cloud seeding and low-altitude chemical dispersion which are entirely unrelated things.

Can you point me to the best evidence in this text for the claim that persistant contrails are deliberately mixed with spraying material, as part of “large-scale geoengineering projects through commercial aviation”? I can’t find any.

What do you think is the single most important fact that supports the theory that persistant contrails are not just ice crystals? I am ready to be convinced if it stands up to scrutiny.

By Josh on 2014 10 28 - 09:51:35
From the entry 'Contrails dissipate quickly whereas chemtrails linger?'.

ankara travestileri ankara travestileri ,travesti zuhalin kişisel resim galeri haberler günün sözü icerik ankaradakitravestiler.com

By Ankara Travestileri on 2014 10 28 - 05:01:25
From the entry 'Meet Brendon O'Connell, Australia's first political prisoner'.

Josh
Pardon me iff I dont take you seriously. Chemtrails or if you like, persistant contrails, are nothing new. To suggest that because something is “exotic” means that it is hypothetical, shows your disingenuousness or your stupidity, or both.. Ive learnt long ago not to trust unqualified anonymous numpties on the internet who say things like, “Still no evidence that persistent contrails are anything but.” when all one needs to do to discredit that nonesense is to be in possession of a functioning cognisant ability, and to look up.  If thats not enough, there is plenty of scientific proof also. that shows chemtrails are actually not that exotic at all, that they have been used for decades for various purposes. It is all documented. I have no interest in hearing anything else you have to say, you have said it all, countless times already in this post. You really should get yourself a hobby, maybe go outside once in a while, unless youre scared.

By Andrew Adams on 2014 10 27 - 09:47:55
From the entry 'Contrails dissipate quickly whereas chemtrails linger?'.

Andrew Adams,

two remarks in reply to your post:

1. The “British academic” is David Lim, a former PhD candidate at University of Reading, his subject “Construction Management and Engineering”. His field of research included urban/domestic energy concepts, like in this project.

He has dropped out in 2013 after getting involved with the chemtrail conspiracy theory (and others). He now calls himself an “independent researcher”, but unfortunately he is obviously just reurgitating some long debunked mainstream claims of the chemtrail community, like the one you quoted.


2. The original text of H.R. 2977 was written by Alfred Webre, Carol Rosin and others from the ‘Institute for Cooperation in Space’ (ICIS).

The term ‘chemtrails’ is listed under the category ‘exotic’, along with other hypothetical weapons like ultrasonic, tectonic or psychotronic ones (see original text).

Dennis Kucinich removed these ‘exotic weapons’ in a second version of the bill. It seems he hadn’t scrutinized the first version properly. He said “When I found out that was in there, I said, ‘Look, I’m not interested in going there.’” (Reference : Ohio Newspaper “The Plain Dealer”, 2003-03-12)

Carol Rosin later commented on the modification: “This bill will only ban space-based weapons and the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit. It is NOT a bill to ban chemtrails and/or psychotronics or mind control devises or any specific weapons listed in the category of definitions in the original bill.” (Reference)

So that’s all there is to it. Apparently, you can write anything into a congressional bill; there is no obligation for reality checks (unlike with scientific papers).

Still no evidence that persistent contrails are anything but.

By Josh on 2014 10 26 - 21:38:41
From the entry 'Contrails dissipate quickly whereas chemtrails linger?'.

John Pilger and his mate chumpsky are disingenous gate keepers. Nothing they say here is unheard of, or un reported elsewhere.. The whole world knows of why israel is copping justifiable criticism. They pretend to be on the side of truth and justice, all the time perpetuating the lies.

Pilger stated the most “plausible” scenario for 911, is that “they” let it happen.  His good mate julian assange is on the record saying that those who question the official account of 911 “annoy” him.  After more than a decade of investigation of the evidence, the consensus would suggest the most “plausible” explanation would be that “they” engineered, executed and implemented the cover up.

Pilger is therefore either willfully ignorant, or deliberately deceptive.

By Andrew Adams on 2014 10 25 - 10:51:03
From the entry 'How you have been betrayed by your government and your media'.

Leonard Clampett,

I wish you could point out in one sentence or two why you think my explanation is wrong regarding increased contrail activity that precedes approaching weather fronts.

Copying and pasting heaps of loosely related paragraphs is very unconvincing.

On the good side, I see that you now seem to acknowledge that supersaturation in the atmosphere exists. Several pages earlier, you wrote: “Firstly let me iterate that there is no such thing supersaturation in the free atmosphere at any altitude.” So some advancement there.

However, you picked the wrong sort of supersaturation. Persistent contrails depend on supersaturation with respect to ice instead of supersaturation with respect to water. This occurs at much lower levels of relative humidity (with respect to water); it can happen below 70% already and is in no way limited to the vicinity of thunderstorms.

We have been through this before, you know. That’s why I’m repeating the quotes and their reference from scientic papers that I already gave you on that previous page:

From The dependence of contrail formation on the weather pattern and altitude in the North Atlantic:

Aircraft flying through cold ice-supersaturated air produce persistent contrails which contribute to the climate impact of aviation[/url]

From Cirrus, contrails, and ice supersaturated regions in high pressure systems at northern mid latitudes:

The radiosonde data showed that the upper troposphere was very often supersaturated with respect to ice.

From Formation, properties and climatic effects of contrails:

Condensation trails (contrails) are aircraft induced cirrus clouds, which may persist and grow to large cirrus cover in ice-supersaturated air

From Properties of Ice-Supersaturated Layers Based on Radiosonde Data Analysis:

While supersaturation with respect to ice is not required to form a contrail, it is necessary for the contrail to persist for long times.

From Contrail formation in aircraft wakes

[...] contrails form when the air surrounding the particles becomes supersaturated with respect to ice.

From Aviation and the Global Atmosphere:

Each of these freezing mechanisms requires that the atmosphere be highly supersaturated with respect to the vapor pressure of ice before crystals can form.

 

By Josh on 2014 10 24 - 04:59:59
From the entry 'Contrails dissipate quickly whereas chemtrails linger?'.

Josh,
I believe you are simply out of your depth trying to impress others with knowledge you allege to have gleaned from glider flying instructors, and, as you write, the University of North Carolina you have “linked” to, or you are a mis-informationist, a shill, a useful tool to others. Either way you are simply misguided. Your quoting of terms you have read in textbooks does you no service. Your claims about supersaturation demonstrate your lack of knowledge. You need to understand supersaturation in regard to meteorology is mainly associated with thunderheads, hail and freezing conditions way beyond the normal. Have you ever seen a cumulonimbus topping out at 60,000 feet? I can say without fear of intelligent contradiction that you have never, in a glider, experienced a micro-burst at low level because you would, or should, never have been making an approach to land in such conditions. Supersaturation can result from the internal violence associated with the updrafts inherent in a low level thunderstorm.  Being a glider pilot does not mean you have sat and passed any of the senior level meteorology examinations as I have done in both Australia and Canada. To be a private glider pilot you only need to have passed the meteorology examination for a private pilot to demonstrate you have sufficient knowledge of basic meteorology to hopefully fly safely. Did you know that urine can become supersaturated and cause kidney stones? No massive changes of freezing level temperatures there, I can assure you. No doubt you will respond with some inane theory, but if it makes you feel superior please do so. I hope you are not passing on your inanities to young glider pilots around the bar at the gliding club whilst expanding you ego at their expense. Because meteorology is more of an art than a science, using science to compose theories, I can set you an examination with particular details regarding a place, and no matter whether you answer yes or no to the question posed, I cannot mark you wrong if you back up your answer with logical reasoning. e.g. “Will there be fog in the morning at place A given the following forecast ambient conditions?” Nobody can be 100% sure of the answer and must wait and see if the forecast proves correct.

Simple physics regarding clouds from Wikipedia for your assistance. There is much more from other sources but I do not have the time to train you.
Supersaturation.
1. To cause a chemical solution to be more highly concentrated than is normally possible under given conditions of temperature and pressure.
2. To cause a vapor to exceed the normal saturation vapor pressure at a given temperature.

Cloud physics is the study of the physical processes that lead to the formation, growth and precipitation of clouds. Clouds consist of microscopic droplets of liquid water (warm clouds), tiny crystals of ice (cold clouds), or both (mixed phase clouds). Cloud droplets initially form by the condensation of water vapor onto condensation nuclei when the supersaturation of air exceeds a critical value according to Köhler theory. Cloud condensation nuclei are necessary for cloud droplets formation because of the Kelvin effect, which describes the change in saturation vapor pressure due to a curved surface. At small radii, the amount of supersaturation needed for condensation to occur is so large, that it does not happen naturally. Raoult’s Law describes how the vapor pressure is dependent on the amount of solute in a solution. At high concentrations, when the cloud droplets are small, the supersaturation required is smaller than without the presence of a nucleus.

In warm clouds, larger cloud droplets fall at a higher terminal velocity because the drag force on smaller droplets is larger than on large droplets. The large droplet can then collide with small droplet and combine to form even larger drops. When the drops become large enough so that the acceleration due to gravity is much larger than the acceleration due to drag, the drops can fall to the earth as precipitation. The collision and coalescence is not as important in mixed phase clouds where the Bergeron process dominates. Other important processes that form precipitation are riming, when a supercooled liquid drop collides with a solid snowflake, and aggregation, when two solid snowflakes collide and combine. The precise mechanics of how a cloud forms and grows is not completely understood, but scientists have developed theories explaining the structure of clouds by studying the microphysics of individual droplets. Advances in weather radar and satellite technology have also allowed the precise study of clouds on a large scale.

History of cloud physics

The history of cloud microphysics developed in the 19th century and is described in several publications. Otto von Guericke originated the idea that clouds were composed of water bubbles. In 1847 Agustus Waller used spider web to examine droplets under the microscope. These observations were confirmed by William Henry Dines in 1880 and Richard Assmann in 1884.
Formation
Rising packets of moist air

As water evaporates from an area of the earth surface, the air over that area becomes moist. Moist air is lighter than the surrounding dry air, creating an unstable situation. When enough moist air has accumulated, all the moist air rises as a single packet, without mixing with the surrounding air. As more moist air forms along the surface, the process repeats, resulting in a series of discrete packets of moist air rising to form clouds.
Supersaturation

The amount of water that can exist as vapor in a given volume increases with the temperature. When the amount of water vapor is in equilibrium above a flat surface of water the level of vapor pressure is called saturation and the relative humidity is 100%. At this equilibrium there are equal numbers of molecules evaporating from the water as there are condensing back into the water. If the relative humidity becomes greater than 100%, it is called supersaturated. Supersaturation occurs in the absence of condensation nuclei, for example the flat surface of water.

Since the saturation vapor pressure is proportional to temperature, cold air has a lower saturation point than warm air. The difference between these values is the basis for the formation of clouds. When saturated air cools, it can no longer contain the same amount of water vapor. If the conditions are right, the excess water will condense out of the air until the lower saturation point is reached. Another possibility is that the water stays in vapor form, even though it is beyond the saturation point, resulting in supersaturation.

Supersaturation of more than 1–2% relative to water is rarely seen in the atmosphere, since cloud condensation nuclei are usually present. Much higher degrees of supersaturation are possible in clean air, and are the basis of the cloud chamber.
Supercooling

Water droplets commonly remain as liquid water and do not freeze, even well below 0 °C (32 °F), because of the high surface tension of each microdroplet, which prevents them from expanding to form larger ice crystals. Without ice nuclei supercooled water droplets can exist down to about −40 °C (−40 °F), at which point they will spontaneously freeze.
Collision-coalescence
Main article: Coalescence (meteorology)

One theory explaining how the behavior of individual droplets leads to the formation of clouds is the collision-coalescence process. Droplets suspended in the air will interact with each other, either by colliding and bouncing off each other or by combining to form a larger droplet. Eventually, the droplets become large enough that they fall to the earth as precipitation. The collision-coalescence process does not make up a significant part of cloud formation as water droplets have a relatively high surface tension. In addition, the occurrence of collision-coalescence is closely related to entrainment-mixing processes.[7]
Bergeron process
Main article: Bergeron process

The primary mechanism for the formation of ice clouds was discovered by Tor Bergeron. The Bergeron process notes that the saturation vapor pressure of water, or how much water vapor a given volume can hold, depends on what the vapor is interacting with. Specifically, the saturation vapor pressure with respect to ice is lower than the saturation vapor pressure with respect to water. Water vapor interacting with a water droplet may be saturated, at 100% relative humidity, when interacting with a water droplet, but the same amount of water vapor would be supersaturated when interacting with an ice particle. The water vapor will attempt to return to equilibrium, so the extra water vapor will condense into ice on the surface of the particle. These ice particles end up as the nuclei of larger ice crystals. This process only happens at temperatures between 0 °C (32 °F) and −40 °C (−40 °F). Below −40 °C (−40 °F), liquid water will spontaneously nucleate, and freeze. The surface tension of the water allows the droplet to stay liquid well below its normal freezing point. When this happens, it is now supercooled liquid water. The Bergeron process relies on supercooled liquid water interacting with ice nuclei to form larger particles. If there are few ice nuclei compared to the amount of SLW, droplets will be unable to form. A process whereby scientists seed a cloud with artificial ice nuclei to encourage precipitation is known as cloud seeding. This can help cause precipitation in clouds that otherwise may not rain. Cloud seeding adds excess artificial ice nuclei which shifts the balance so that there are many nuclei compared to the amount of supercooled liquid water. An over-seeded cloud will form many particles, but each will be very small. This can be done as a preventative measure for areas that are at risk for hail storms.
Dynamic phase hypothesis

The second critical point in the formation of clouds is their dependence on updrafts. As particles group together to form water droplets, they will quickly be pulled down to earth by the force of gravity. The droplets would quickly dissipate and the cloud will never form. However, if warm air interacts with cold air, an updraft can form. Warm air is less dense than colder air, so the warm air rises. The air traveling upward buffers the falling droplets, and can keep them in the air much longer than they would otherwise stay. In addition, the air cools as it rises, so any moisture in the updraft will then condense into liquid form, adding to the amount of water available for precipitation. Violent updrafts can reach speeds of up to 180 miles per hour (290 km/h).[9] A frozen ice nucleus can pick up 0.5 inches (1.3 cm) in size traveling through one of these updrafts and can cycle through several updrafts before finally becoming so heavy that it falls to the ground. Cutting a hailstone in half shows onion-like layers of ice, indicating distinct times when it passed through a layer of super-cooled water. Hailstones have been found with diameters of up to 7 inches (18 cm).[10]
Cloud Classification
Main article: List of cloud types

Clouds are classified according to the height at which they are found, and their shape or appearance. There are three basic categories based on physical structure and process of formation. Cirriform clouds are high, thin and wispy, and are seen most extensively along the leading edges of organized weather disturbances. Stratiform clouds appear as extensive sheet-like layers, ranging from thin to moderately thick with some vertical development. They are mostly the product of large scale lift of stable air. Cumuliform clouds are formed mostly into localized heaps, rolls and/or ripples ranging from very small cloudlets of limited convection in slightly unstable air to very large towering free convective buildups when the airmass is very unstable. Clouds of limited convection that show a mix of cumuliform and stratiform characteristics are often grouped into a fourth category, stratocumuliform.

These categories are cross-classified by high, middle, low, and vertical altitude ranges into ten genus types. All cirriform clouds are classified as high and therefore constitute a single cloud genus cirrus. Stratiform and stratocumuliform clouds in the topmost region of the troposphere have the prefix cirro- added to their names yielding the genera cirrostratus and cirrocumulus. Similar clouds found at intermediate heights carry the prefix alto- resulting in the genus names altostratus and altocumulus. No height-related prefixes are used for the low altitudes, so clouds of these two physical categories based around 2 kilometres or lower are known simply as stratus and stratocumulus.

Vertically developed nimbostratus (deep stratiform), cumulus, and cumulonimbus may form anywhere from near surface to intermediates heights of around 3 kilometres and therefore, like the low clouds, have no height related prefixes. However, those capable of producing heavy precipitation or stormy weather carry a nimbo- or -nimbus designation. Of the vertically developed clouds, the cumulonimbus type is the largest and can virtually span the entire troposphere from a few hundred metres above the ground up to the tropopause. It is the cloud responsible for thunderstorms. Its complex structure often combining a cirriform top and stratocumuliform accessory clouds with an overall cumuliform structure sometimes result in this genus type being separated into a fifth physical cumulonimbiform category. This leaves the cumulus genus with its simple heaped structure as the sole purely cumuliform physical category type. Small cumulus is usually considered a low cloud genus, while taller cumulus is more often grouped with cumulonimbiform and deep stratiform genus types as vertical or multilevel.
The cloud chamber, also known as the Wilson chamber, is a particle detector used for detecting ionizing radiation.
File:Home Made Cloud Chamber.webmPlay media
A Home Made Cloud Chamber
Image taken in the Pic du Midi at 2877m in a Phywe PJ45 cloud chamber (size of surface is 45 x 45 cm). This rare picture shows in a single shot the 4 particles that we can detect in a cloud chamber : proton, electron, muon (probably) and alpha

In its most basic form, a cloud chamber is a sealed environment containing a supersaturated vapor of water or alcohol. When a charged particle (for example, an alpha or beta particle) interacts with the mixture, the fluid is ionized. The resulting ions act as condensation nuclei, around which a mist will form (because the mixture is on the point of condensation). The high energies of alpha and beta particles mean that a trail is left, due to many ions being produced along the path of the charged particle. These tracks have distinctive shapes (for example, an alpha particle’s track is broad and shows more evidence of deflection by collisions, while an electron’s is thinner and straight). When any uniform magnetic field is applied across the cloud chamber, positively and negatively charged particles will curve in opposite directions, according to the Lorentz force law with two particles of opposite charge.

Cloud chambers played a prominent role in the experimental particle physics from 1920s to the 1950s, until the advent of the bubble chamber. In particular, the discoveries of the positron in 1932, the Muon in 1936, both by Carl Anderson (awarded a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1936), and the kaon in 1947 were made using cloud chambers as detectors. Anderson detected the positron and muon in cosmic rays.

By Leonard Clampett on 2014 10 23 - 10:18:01
From the entry 'Contrails dissipate quickly whereas chemtrails linger?'.

Geoengineering is Real: British Academic Reveals Size and Scope of Operation

“The term ‘Chemtrails’ is not a conspiracy theory either. The name can be traced back to the US Congress itself. House Bill 2977, Space Preservation Act 2001, Page 5, line 15, under the heading of “exotic weapons”.”

By Andrew Adams on 2014 10 22 - 14:17:07
From the entry 'Contrails dissipate quickly whereas chemtrails linger?'.

Engineered Drought Catastrophe, Target California
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OsYG5emdZp8#t=64
So Josh, your argument against chemtrails on all points. There is nothing to debate.

By Leonard Clampett on 2014 10 22 - 13:15:51
From the entry 'Contrails dissipate quickly whereas chemtrails linger?'.

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